Factors affecting settlements: Residential: A major function of settlements is to give people a place to live. They are found closer to large cities or towns where inhabitants work. Strategic: Strategic settlements were built in locations that used phyisical geography to protect them from attack e.g. on top of hills for defensive purposes, surrounded by a river for defenses and high up for a clear view. Tourist resorts: Tourist resorts developed with the arrival of railways, means that people were able to travel around the country more easily. Major citites are now tourist resorts. Industrial: The main function of industrial settlements in the past was to provide jobs in the secondary industry. They were located on coalfields and have good access to canals for transport. Market centre: Main function is to provide services to the local area and the settlements have good transport links and contains many services.
Changes to rural communities - counter-urbanisation: Many migrants still work in urban areas, causing pollution. Villages become ghost towns during the day and the traditions of the village are not valued or cared about from the new comers. Local schools have an increase in pupils. House prices may rise in rural areas due to demand increasing which means that locals can now not afford to buy a house. Migrants do not support local businesses and shop in urban areas where they work.
Counter urbanisation case study, Austrey in Warwickshire: People moved out of the city of Birmingham and moved here. Population increased from 300-1000. A number of new housing estates were built, there used to be 18farms in the village but only 2 are left. Therefore, village lost some of its old character. The demand for schools increased and they increased in size massively. The village pub 'The Bird in Hand' became a meeting…