GCSE Geography Development Dynamics

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Development indicators:

 

Gini Coefficient- This measures the extent to which the distribution of income is unequal within a country. Values range from 0-1. A score of 0 would mean that everyone in a country has the same income. A value of 1 means that one person has all the income.

Life expectancy at birth- Average number of years that a person can expect to live from birth. This gives an indication of social welfare within a country.

HDI (Human development index)- Considers both social and economic development. It gives each country a score between 0 & 1 based on life expectancy, education and income. A score closer to 0 means that a country is less developed. A score closer to 1 means the country is more developed.

Adult Literacy rate- Percentage of people aged 15 or over who can read and write. It is calculated from census data and can indicate the level of education in a country.

Infant mortality- Number of deaths of children aged 1 or below for every 1,000 live births. It can be calculated by: no. of deaths of children aged 1 or below divided by no. of live births per 1,000.

Gross national product (G.N.P) per capita- Average value of goods and services produced by each person in a year. Total earnings of a country are divided by the total population to get average earnings per person. It does not include what people eat and grow themselves.

Corruption perceptions index- Countries where the quality of government is poor often have high levels of corruption. The index grades countries from highly corrupt (0) to ‘very clean’ (100)

 

Why is GDP not a good measure of development?

GDP is not a good measure of development because:

  • It does not show within country inequality (some people are very wealthy, some are not.)

  • It doesn’t tell us how a country spends its money (if it’s corrupt or does not invest in healthcare.)

     

     

6 countries and their developed state:

  • UK & Japan; Developed

  • Brazil & India; Emerging

  • Papua Guinea & Niger; Developing.

 

Population Pyramids:

A population pyramid shows the characteristics of a population- the age and gender of a country. As countries develop, the shape of their population changes.

On a population pyramid, population is shown in 5-year age bands. 0-14 are ‘young dependants,’ 15-64 are ‘economically active,’ and 65-85+ are ‘old/elderly dependants.’

Males are generally on the left, females on the right.

 

Champagne-Glass distribution:

  • Measured in ‘quintiles’

  • Quintiles are horizontal bands which represent an equal 5th of the world’s people and is a way of analysing the distribution of income in a country for every 20% of people.

     

Barriers to development:

  • Conflict

  • Desertification and drought

  • Disease (HIV/AIDS)

  • Regional Contrast

  • Climate change

  • Geographical position

  • Development Gap:

     

    Due to geographical and historical factors, the world is made up of countries which 'have' and some which 'have not' - the development gap. Some

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