Gardner and Gardner Findings and Conclusions.

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  • Created by: alice
  • Created on: 25-04-12 13:59

Within the 22 monthds from the beginning of Washoe's training, 30 words met the criteria set by Gardner and Gardner.

  • By 7 months, she could use 4 signs.
  • By 14 months, she could use 13.
  • Finally, by 21 months, she could use 30 signs.

Examples of the 30 words Washoe acquired were: come-gimme, more, up, sweet, open and tickle.

Four other words (dog, smell, me and clean) were judged to be stable, but had not met the criteria.

Specific ways in which Washoe used signs:

More- fingertips brought together overhead- used when asking to continue or repeat and activity. e.g. more tickling.

Drink- thumb extended from a fist and touches mouth for water- for pop often combined with sweet.

Please- one hand across the chest- when asking for object or activity- often combined with 'go' or 'drink'.

Imitation: Getting Washoe to imitate was easy, but it wasn't until the 16th month of work that Gardner and Gardner had any control over the gestures. She would sometimes fail to use a new sign in context, but this was overcome by repetition.

Babbling: Washoe was encourage to babble by clapping and smiling repeatedly, the sign for funny was learnt this way.

Instrumental conditioning: In the early months Washoe would indicated more tickling by placing the researcher's hands on her ribs. They noticed when she…


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