Further Organic Chemistry

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Primary alcohols alchols with only one carbon atom directly attached to the carbon with the hydroxyl group

Oxides twice first to a aldehyde then a carboxylic acid

Sulfuric acid ad potassium dichromate oxidising agents

orange to green

Secondary alcohols with 2 carbon atoms directly attached to the carbon atom with the hydroxyl group

Oxidises into a Ketone

Sulfuric acid ad potassium dichromate oxidising agents

Orange to green

Tertiary alcohols 3 carbon atoms directly attached to carbon with hydroxyl group

Dont oxidise

Alcohols liquids at room temp due to h bonds   

also have instaneous induced dipole forces between molecules between molecules 

stronger forces so they are harder to separate s have a higher boiling temp 

Bigger chains less soluble in water smaller more soluble cos they can h bond with water 

Methanol manufactured by hot co and h passed over catalyst of zinc and chromium oxide

Ethanol can be made by oxidising glucose from carbohydrates into c2h50h and co2 

or through catalytic addition of water to ethene obtained through cracking fractions of crude oil in primary distillation of it (crude oil)


Combustion burn completely with oxygen to produce co2 and water clean flame

add to petrol to reduce carbon footbprint when it is bioethanol

with sodium produces sodium ethoxide and hydroge if excess ethanol is evaporated na+c2h5o- is seen as a white solid

water added na produced naoh and oh

ethoxide ion creates ethanol and h2

HALOGENATION (substitution reactions)

Chlorination - ethanol +pcl5 and choroethane phosophurusoxycholride and hcl

Bromination - 50% sulphuric acid and bromine 50% as sulphuric acid can oxidise hbr to br 

Iodination - Moist red phosphorous and iodine to create phosphorous triodide

             phspurous triodide and ethanol to produce iodoethanol and phospurus 3 avid

Test for OH group add chlorine to the substance and hcl fumes will be formed to check if an acid or carboxylic  acid add universal indicator acids will 

have ph lower than 7 alcohols are neutral 

test for tertiary alcohols they dont oxidise so dichromate ions arent decolourised and stay orange

test between ketones and aldehydes = benedicts solution stays blue in ketones dark red precipitate in aldehydes

Secondary alcohols and iodine and naoh to produce pale yellow precipitate of idoform, chi3

a halogenoalkane is a compound where one or more hydrogen atoms…


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