· BULK CHEMICALS are produced on a large scale – ammonia, sulphuric acid, etc
· FINE CHEMICALS are produced on a small scale – drugs, fragrances, food additives
· New chemicals need lots research:
1. Testing using a process of trial and error
2. Making computer models of reactions
3. Designing or refining the manufacture of the chemical
4. Investigating risks to the environment and people
5. Monitoring the quality of the product
· Government regulations protect people and the environment – storage, transport
· Stages of producing chemicals:
1. Raw materials are converted into feedstock – purified or changed to make feedstoc
2. Synthesis – carefully controlled conditions
3. The products are separated
4. The purity of the products is monitored
5. By-products and waste are dealt with
· 8 key questions about sustainability when producing chemicals:
1. WILL THE RAW MATERIALS RUN OUT?
2. HOW GOOD IS THE ATOM ECONOMY?
3. WHAT DO I DO WITH THE WASTE PRODUCTS?
4. WHAT ARE THE ENERFY COSTS?
5. WILL IT DAMAGE THE ENVIRONMENT?
6. WHAT ARE THE HEALTH AND SAFTEY RISKS?
7. ARE THERE ANY BENEFITS OR RISKS TO SOCIETY?
8. IS IT PROFITABLE?
· Energy must always be supplied to break bonds
· Bond breaking – ENDOTHERMIC – Energy is absorbed…