DAVIE says there is more vicarious religion where a small no. of professional clergy practice religion on behalf of a large no. of people who experience it second hand. This is mostly common in britain and north europe. Furthermore even though church attendance is low, people still use the church as rites of passage rituals which mark a change of status, for example weddings, baptism and funerals.
BIBBYS- study found 25% of canadians went church all the time and 80% said the had religious beliefs which were identified with religious traditions. Even though they didn't go church they were still interested in the supernatural.
DAVIE compares religion to the tip of an ice berg...beneath appears a small commitment which is actually a wider commitment to religion. E.g. people…