Family Diversity


Anderson argues there has always been family diversity but widely ignored by many sociologists

Cereal packet image: Oackley suggests marketization of gender roles, the nuclear family, how many children to have and married parents- uses these as tool to sell product; Leach calls it the cereal packet image of family; Thorne says many have widely differing family types because of race, ethnicity, generation, class etc. ALL BELIEVE NUCLEAR FAMILY HIGHLY MISLEADING

Rapoport found in 80s that nuclear family not dominant- 1971 35% nuclear family; decrease to 2008 21% nuclear family

Rpoport identify five main types of diversity: organization, cohort, class, stage in life-cycle; cultural.

Allan and Crow believe diversity continued because: rising divorce rate, falling marriage rate, increase in lone parent families, cohabitation, increase in stepfamilies

NEW DIVERSITY: Gay and Lesbain families, 2004 Civil Partnerships, 2014 gay marriage; break down of heteronorm by media (Rosneil); in vitro fertilization; surrogate mothers and sperm donors. 

Lone parent households men and women: due to divorce, seperation or death.

1971 3% of households consisted of lone parents; risen to 7% in 2008

Allan and Crow blame rise in marital breakdowns and rise in births among unmarried women...increasing choice for women etc

Morgan sees equality of sexes making lone parenthood more viable and women's ability to be economically independent; also less stigma surrounding illegitimacy

Burges and Brown however suggests that most


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