Fall of Bismarck
- 'Personal rule'- Bismarck wanted to pass the 1852 Cabinet order so that ministers would have to go through him to get to the Kaiser- Kaiser put a stop to it!
- Disagreeents over foreign policy. Kaiser and his staff accused Bismarck of not informing him in time of the Russian troops in the Balkans. Bismarck told KWII to stay away from Russia for talks as the Tsar thought he was immature- an "ill-bred youngster".
- Bismarck's position was purely dependant on the Kaiser- all laws and piolicies had to be agreed by him not chancellor.
- Bismarck tried to set up the Reich council to bypass Reichstag which was rejected as there was hostility within the Reichstag towards him after the late 1880's.
- Disagreements over socialism- Bismarck wanted more harsh measured he proposed a perminent State Socialism Welfare measure, which backfired. The SPD grew to 35 seats in Reichstag. Kaiser wanted to work with Socialists in 1889 there was a miner's strole on Ruhr.
- Kaiser wanted more Social Insurance Schemes. Bismarckk was terrified of Trade Union rise. Bismarck wanted Socialist and Trade Unions to be Reichsfeinde. Kaiser didn't want Reichsfeinde.
- Bismarck had a weak position in Reichstag as his parties(Free Conservatives, Conservatives Nationl Liberals only gained 220 seats out of 335 after Kartell collapsed.
- 1890 his groups only won 85 seats. Reichstag refused to ban SPD and Trade Unions permenantly.
- Centre party refused to give him support due to previous Kulturkampf policy.
- Kaiser refused Bismarck's scheme to change constitution yso Reichstag could lose power. Reichstag lost to increase the army to 125,000 men.
Germany under Wilhelm II- 1890-1914-
- Kaiser's personality- 'People's Emperor'- sympathy for the workers of the miner's strike in the Ruhr.
- 'ReiseKaiser- often journeyed around the empire or on his yachr rather than sitting down to study state papers.
- Took advice from courtiers such as Eulenberg, which gave him more power.
- He dominanted in terms of decision making.
- Fear of socialism and anti-semitism- personal insecurity.
- 1890's- Germany produced around 90% ofthe world's dyestudds and dominated drug manufacture.
- Led the world in producing a variety of chemicals which were useful in production of fertilisers and the production of ammonia rose by around 350% in 1897 and 1907 to 287,000 tons per year.
Caprivi from 1890-1894-
- Kaiser wanted a military figure as chancellor so he ordered Caprivi to take the role.
- Caprivi was a moderniser who wanted to co-operate with the Reichstag.
- Caprivi reduced military rule from 3 years to 2 and he discussed military budget evey 5 years rather than 7. Caprivi did this to get teh army bill that Wilhelm wanted passed as he was scared of the Double Entente that France and Russia had signed.
- Wilhelm wanted 84,000 more men in the army.
- This upset the camerillo and Eulenbergs.
- Caprivi wanted social reforms and lower tariffs, i.e on wheat, rye, cattle and timber to improve export trade and lower prices.
- Caprivi attempted to reform with these aims in mind:
- Indutrial courts were set up in 1890 to…