Extraneous variable & controls

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Definition: Other factors that could influence results.

Order Effects: P’s may perform differently on 2 conditions because of the order in which they are performed. (practice, bored, tired)

This is controlled by counterbalancing (ABBA)

Participant Variables: P’s characteristics (ag, gender, personality) These only occur in independent groups design.

Participant Effects

  1. The Hawthorne effect - P’s aware they’re being observed = perform better.


  1. The Screw You Effect


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