Extraction of titanium


Titanium is extracted from its ore, rutile - TiO2. It is first converted into titanium(IV) chloride, which is then reduced to titanium using either magnesium or sodium.

Conversion of TiO2 into TiCl4

The ore rutile (impure titanium(IV) oxide) is heated with chlorine and coke at a temperature of about 1000°C.

TiCl4 can be reduced using either magnesium or sodium. AQA will accept either, and so I am just giving the magnesium one.

Titanium(IV) chloride vapour is passed into a reaction vessel containing molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere, and the temperature is increased to about


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