It is claimed working class families use deficient language, they use hand gestures and single words or disjointed phrases.
Intellectual development - Development of thinking and reasoning skills such as the ability to solve problems and use ideas and concepts.
o Douglas found that working class pupils scored lower on tests than middle class children at the age of 11 but not by the age of 5.
o Bernstein and Young – middle class mothers more likely to buy toys that encourage intellectual development.
o It is argued that working class families lack books and educational facilities to stimulate the intellectual skills required for school.
The elaborated speech code
o Typically used by middle class.
o Wider vocabulary and based on longer and more grammatically complex sentences.
o Speech is more varied and communicates abstract ideas.
o Context free; the speaker doesn’t assume that that listener shares the same experiences so they use their language to spell out the meanings.
The restricted speech code
o Typically used by working class.
o Limited vocabulary and based on the usage of short often unfinished and grammatically simple…