Group displays help to determine dominance hierachies over ownership of territory and aim to intimidate other groups.
- War dances - intimidate and motivate. Supporter displays achieve the dame ends, for example the wearing of face paints and singing of club anthems. Such displays increase social infidelity.
- Territorial behaviour - group displays mark out and defend territories, such as team supporters congregating in traditional areas.
- Ritual behaviour - much of the aggression shown between sports fans is ritualistic; posturing and verbal abuse occurs but little actual violence, suggesting a symbolic show of strength to limit injuries
- Swarchz and Barkey (1977) found taht teams won more home…