The Encoding Specificity Principle- Tulving and Pearlstone
To demonstrate the importance of retrieval cues p's were given a set of 48 words split into 12 catagories, they were presented as category+ word e.g fruit+orange. Two different recall condtions:
Free recall: p's were given no cues and had to recall as many words as they could = 40%
Cued recall: p's were given the catagory names= 60%
This is evidence that cues are encoded at the time of learning and have a meaningful link to the information.
Context dependent forgetting- Godden and Baddeley
Recruitted scuba divers as p's and got them to learn a list of words either on land or in water, subsequently they were asked to recall the words either onland or in water (so there were four conditions).
State-dependent forgetting- Goodwin et al
Male volunteers were asked to…