Exclusion-based explanations

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OVERALL MESSAGE: Exclusion-based argue that society's heirarchy is to blame for putting vulnerable groups ie. disabled, sick, elderly, women, ethnic minorities and children  at risk of poverty

1. Poverty, powerlessness and the labour market: - least powerful groups most likely to be in poverty - when vulnerable groups gets jobs, they're likely to be temporary, low-paying and 'unoffical' work

2. Citizenship and exclusion: - (Field 1989) argues that the long-term unemployed, lone-parent families and those on retirement pensions…


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