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Is the formation of new species. An important part of the formation of new species is the separation of the splinter population from the parent population. The splinter population is now able to form its own evolutionary pathway.

There is 2 types of Speciation:

  • Allopatric Speciation is when the species population is separated by a geographical barrier such as mountain range or the ocean. The species is then identifies as an allopatric population.
  • Sympatric Speciation is when a sub-population become reproductively isolated from the parent population. When the sub-population move into another environment, the variation among them become far to different than that in the parent population which mean they cannot inter-breed any more.

Allopatric Speciation

Can occur in the following ways:

  • Reduced selection pressure ( population move into new environment many ecological niche unfulfilled). therefore many genes/traits that were selected against are now free to be expressed.
  • Migration gives way for sub-species to develop new natural selection pressures.
  • Geographic barriers arise, which lead to geographic isolations, which lead to new species. This means that the isolated population will undergo mutations that do not flow into the parent population. Exposed to


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