+ Lots of studies to back up- Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) - those considered 'bloomers' likely to do better in exams. Snyder (1977) if someone is attractive, more likely to be helpful.
+ Can explain recidivism among former criminals. If the criminal returns to the community where they live, then other members of the community will label them as criminal. A self fulfilling prophecy may occur, and further crimes are committed.
+Most studies are naturalistic observations which have high validity
+ backs up the nurture debate- if criminality was down to genes, labels and stereotypes would not make a difference.
-not everyone acts according to the…