Ethnicity and Achievement.
Ethnicity - Shared culture, language, history, religion, geography.
Chinese have the best results; five or more A* to C grades are awarded to 77% of girls and 71% of boys. Indians are the next highest. Black Caribbean are the lowest achievers, with 23% of boys and 38% of girls achieving 5 A to C GCSEs.
Black pupils are the most likely to be permanently excluded from schools, this has got worse in 2012.
This is a materialist perspective.
Mabey (1981) states that Indians and African-Asians are middle class. Many are business people. Bangladesh and Pakistan immigrants are from poorer backgrounds.
African-Caribbeans tend to do manual work so children are working class.
Craft and Craft (1983):
African-Caribbean working class attain less than white working class. This is the same of middle class.
Class may explain some underachievement but more explanation is needed.
This is a culturalist perspective.
African-Caribbeans fail to encourage children to do well in education. There is an inadequate provision of toys, books and stimulation.
Murray (1994) - New Right
African-Caribbeans' underachievement and exclusion is linked to large number of female headed lone parent families. He claims that mothers are incapable of instilling discipline.
African-Caribbean culture does not value education, marriage, family life, or work.…