ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES AND ACHIEVEMENT EXTERNAL FACTORS
Intellectual + Linguistic Skills
EMG and low income black = lack adequate stimulation + linguistic development through their socialisation
Poorly equipped for school - haven't developed reasoning and prob solv
Lack of standard English creates huge barrier in Ed
Bernstein 1975 - Speech Codes
HOWEVER, Mirza notes how this explanation doesn't explain why Indian pupils do so well.
Attitudes + Values
Diff ethnic groups are socialises into diff attitudes & values.
Chinese & Indian socialised to have pro-school values.
Lack of motivation = main cause of failure in Black children = socialised into subculture = fatalistic 'live for today' = don't value ed
Media created negative anti-school role model for Black pupils. 'Ultra-Tough Ghetto Superstar' reinforced through rap lyrics & MTV videos.
Family Structure & Parental Support
'Dysfunctional' familt types are to blame for the underachievement of certain ethnic groups.
African Caribbean LPF = lack male-role models means that mothers struggle to socialise children adequately... VICTIM BLAMING
'Adult Authoritarian' Asian family matches that of the school.
Sewell: Fathers, Gangs & Culture
Not abscence of father role…