Ethnic differences in achievement- internal factors

  • Labelling 
    • Asian students seen as passive but intelligent 
    • Black boys seen by teachers as aggressive and thuggish - Black Machismo
    • Teachers quicker to discipline Black students. 
    • Sewell's responses to teacher labelling
      • Rebels - small but most visible group, have anti school values, equate virility with masculinity
      • Conformists - largest group, wanted to succeed, disliked by the rebels
      • Retreatists - tiny minority of Black students, rejected school and subcultures. 
      • Innovators- pro-education but anti-school, distanced themselves from the conformists but maintained positive about academic achievement. 
    • Responses to racist labels 
      • Fuller - Black girls conformed to…


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