4. (a) Examine the term ‘miracle’ with reference to three scholars. [25]

Many scholars, both religious and non-religious have found ways of defining miracles, from Aquinas down to Swinburne. The definitions do differ with some referencing laws of nature and some not.

Firstly, the philosopher Hume defines 'a miracle as a  "transgression from the laws of nature by a particular volition or diety". This could infer that for a miracle to be considered as one, it must go against the laws of nature and has to be performed by a supernatural being otherwise it cannot be a miracle. So for example, the division of the red sea is considered a miracle under Humes's criteria as the sea parting is a transgression from the natural laws of nature, as the sea wouldn't be able to part under normal circumstances. Hume goes on to to create a list in which a miracle has to meet each of the criteria since he's a sceptic. He claims that it has to be in a "celebrated " part of the world where learned then he'd be able to critique it and verify it.

Another philosopher whom defines miracles is Holland. He defines them as a "happy coincidence…


No comments have yet been made