o Non-fluency- ‘erm, er’ etc.-Any features that make it clear it is spontaneous which is fillers and hesitations.
o Filler-is a voiced pause such as ‘er’ and ‘erm’.
o Imagery-Creating imagery with words.
o Phatic talk- making small talk, saying things for the sake of it ‘a nice morning isn’t it?’
Rhythm- some stressed some non-stressed-giving a text a beat.
o Rhyming pattern- An example: ABAB
Compound- ‘blackbird’, ‘handbag’ and ‘skateboard’- putting two words together.
o Neologisms-made up words
Suffix- goes on the end such as ’ly’
o Prefix-goes at the front
Political correctness-not offending anyone.
Back formation- changes the word class ‘editor’ to ‘to edit’.
o Tag question- integrative- expecting a reply.
Sociolect- the words you chose to use within your social group.
o Idioms- Cliché an overused metaphor- he kicked the bucket- can mean literally kicked the bucket or died.
Euphemism-mild expression-‘he passed away’
o Syllables- how many beats per word.
Acronym- USA- ‘United States Of America’
o Sonnet- 14 lines in a poem.
Rhyming couplet- two lines that rhyme.
o Pragmatics- study of language.
Double negative- ‘I aint got no food’.