Catholic threat - 1560's
Threat? - Majority of the population. - might try replace Elizabeth with MQS.
Queen had strong views on non conformity - * Penal clauses used to enforce changes, oath of supremacy, punishment to uphold pope's authority, recusancy fines, - DEMANDED OBEDIENCE.
In reality - gentry just quietly conformed, always had done.
Bossy: thinks they tended to conform.
Haigh: thinks they worshipped as they always had done.
Protestantism took more of a hold in towns, local government was more active.
- outlying areas, unhindered by authorities, potentially dangerous, on the coastal areas, INVASION.
Elizabeth did not have control over her local government enough to impose her laws really strictly - her JPS were not paid, and were catholic, in catholic areas out of necessity- land owners.
15/16 Marian bishops did not conform , 200 out of 8'000 clergy had not conformed. - loss of living in result.
* commissioners may have turned a blind eye to quiet people, but trouble makers were deal with.
LIz did not want to create trouble and neither did the priests.
Papacy gave weak leadership:
1 - 1561, England denied access to the Papal Nuncio
2 - 1562, Pope reluctantly told English caths not to attend services - only because he was directly asked on his opinion.
3 - 1563 - did not excommunicate Elizabeth , under advice of Philip II.
1569 - NORTHERN RISING.
1570 - PAPAL BULL
1570S & 80S - MARIAN PLOTS
1574 + - MISSIONARY PRIESTS.
1. Norther Rising.
- southern court plot to over thrown Cecil - he had seized the Spanish Bullion in 1568, and it was feared he's start a war, there was also jealousy that he was so high up.
involved: Norfolk, Earls of Arundel and Pembroke, Leicester, Westmorland, Northumberland.
Norfolk - planning to marry MQS, make himself king - later executed for treason.
Leicester revealed plot, and threw himself at mercy of Queen, Norfolk did so. - Northumberland & Westmorland misread this as him retiring to raise rebellion.
- he was warning them there was no support in the south.
Rising at Durham castle, escape to Scotland.
- Northumberland sold back and executed.
WAS IT A THREAT??
- NO. - no support for it, strengthened Crown's power in the North, - Council of the North stronger.
Elizabeth had her own men in government that were loyal, e.g. Lord Scrope - warden of the North, recieved patronage for loyalty.
No battle - put down easily.
WAS - North vulnerable area - help from Scotland = dangerous. - SO POTENTIALLY.
BUT - little chance of success, isolated to the North…