Elizabeth ! - Catholic threat

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Catholic threat - 1560's

Threat? - Majority of the population. - might try replace Elizabeth with MQS. 

Queen had strong views on non conformity - * Penal clauses used to enforce changes, oath of supremacy, punishment to uphold pope's authority, recusancy fines, - DEMANDED OBEDIENCE. 

In reality - gentry just quietly conformed, always had done.

Bossy: thinks they tended to conform.

Haigh: thinks they worshipped as they always had done. 

Protestantism took more of a hold in towns, local government was more active. 

- outlying areas, unhindered by authorities, potentially dangerous, on the coastal areas, INVASION.

Elizabeth did not have control over her local government enough to impose her laws really strictly - her JPS were not paid, and were catholic, in catholic areas out of necessity- land owners. 

15/16 Marian bishops did not conform , 200 out of 8'000 clergy had not conformed. - loss of living in result. 

* commissioners may have turned a blind eye to quiet people, but trouble makers were deal with. 

LIz did not want to create trouble and neither did the priests. 

Papacy gave weak leadership:

1 - 1561, England denied access to the Papal Nuncio

2 - 1562, Pope reluctantly told English caths not to attend services - only because he was directly asked on his opinion.

3 - 1563 - did not excommunicate Elizabeth , under advice of Philip II.



1570 - PAPAL BULL 

1570S & 80S - MARIAN PLOTS


1. Norther Rising. 

- southern court plot to over thrown Cecil - he had seized the Spanish Bullion in 1568, and it was feared he's start a war, there was also jealousy that he was so high up. 

involved: Norfolk, Earls of Arundel and Pembroke, Leicester, Westmorland, Northumberland.  

Norfolk - planning to marry MQS, make himself king - later executed for treason. 

Leicester revealed plot, and threw himself at mercy of Queen, Norfolk did so. - Northumberland & Westmorland misread this as him retiring to raise rebellion. 

- he was warning them there was no support in the south. 

Rising at Durham castle, escape to Scotland. 

- Northumberland sold back and executed. 


- NO. - no support for it, strengthened Crown's power in the North, - Council of the North stronger.

Elizabeth had her own men in government that were loyal, e.g. Lord Scrope - warden of the North, recieved patronage for loyalty. 

No battle - put down easily. 

WAS - North vulnerable area - help from Scotland = dangerous. - SO POTENTIALLY. 

BUT - little chance of success, isolated to the North…


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