Elizabeth 1 - Puritans.

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- abusive term for Protestants who wanted more reform than given. 


often non conformist - considered church rebels. 

- threat because unity of kingdom relied on conformity and not division.

- any criticism of Supreme Governor - challenge to her as head of state. - she would not tolerate any questioning of her authority. 

- division in religion could lead to rebellion, disunity and possibly civil war - had been experienced in Germany. She had to take any non conformity seriously. 

- Presbyterians threat to Prot. Church - wanted fundamental Calvinist reform - would challenge her authority to rule Church and state.

Who were they?

- Puritans were members of the Church of England who:

wanted further reform based on Scripture.

cleanse the church of popish relics.

Presbyterians - believed Calvinist theology and discipline. - dangerous.

* They all wanted a national church for uniformity and order.

* Preaching - essential tool. preaching and pamphlets.

* Puritan presses - illegal - censorship.

preachers - illegal - unlicesned

Divisions among them weakened any challenge. 

Conformists and Presbyterians opposed Separatists.


Willing to work with Elizabeth, changes would come from her in time.

Bishops - Grindal & Whitgift.

Privy Councillors - Cecil, Walsingham, Leciester.

Wanted stability and would not question the Queen over vestments or changes in church organisation. 


Wanted to change church organisation - Calvinist lines.

Church elders run the parishes

* Congregation electing own ministers.

* Church guided by decisions taken by assemblies of clergy at local, provincial and national levels. - made royal supremacy unnecessary. 

* supreme govt replaced by national assembly - make bishops redundant. she controlled and disciplined her church through her bishops.

* middle class would run the church as elders and there was a fear that in the end they would want to run the country through a national assembly - parliament. - religious and politcal threat. 

THIS WAS POTENTIALLY REVOLUTIONARY. - hand power to the people. 

Most reformers did not intend this - simply raise standards by educating clergy , doing away with abuses. 


They were outside the Church of England.

They rejected a national church.

Each congregation should find truth by interpretting Scripture their own way. - independent congregations.

ANARCHY. - religious division and disorder. 

Government dealings:

Refused to alter settlement - people needed a sure faith. 

Non conformity had to be stopped as a matter of discipline. - if clergy could challenge her over small issues, they might over lalrge ones, e.g. royal supremacy. - challenge to state and church.

How serious was the Puritan challenge to the Red Rubric in 1565 - 66?

Row over vestments and Parker's Advertisements 1566

1st challenge to settlement.

- challenges to red rubric , breaking act of uniformity. 

- Presbyterians wanted to only wear the black Genevan gown. 

- ministers wanted to break loaves instead of wafers. 

Elizabeth wrote to Archbishop Parker instructing him to impose discipline on the clergy and to stop the nonconformity. 

Archbishop Parker's Advertisements - imposed discipline. 


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