- abusive term for Protestants who wanted more reform than given.
often non conformist - considered church rebels.
- threat because unity of kingdom relied on conformity and not division.
- any criticism of Supreme Governor - challenge to her as head of state. - she would not tolerate any questioning of her authority.
- division in religion could lead to rebellion, disunity and possibly civil war - had been experienced in Germany. She had to take any non conformity seriously.
- Presbyterians threat to Prot. Church - wanted fundamental Calvinist reform - would challenge her authority to rule Church and state.
Who were they?
- Puritans were members of the Church of England who:
wanted further reform based on Scripture.
cleanse the church of popish relics.
Presbyterians - believed Calvinist theology and discipline. - dangerous.
* They all wanted a national church for uniformity and order.
* Preaching - essential tool. preaching and pamphlets.
* Puritan presses - illegal - censorship.
preachers - illegal - unlicesned
Divisions among them weakened any challenge.
Conformists and Presbyterians opposed Separatists.
Willing to work with Elizabeth, changes would come from her in time.
Bishops - Grindal & Whitgift.
Privy Councillors - Cecil, Walsingham, Leciester.
Wanted stability and would not question the Queen over vestments or changes in church organisation.
Wanted to change church organisation - Calvinist lines.
Church elders run the parishes
* Congregation electing own ministers.
* Church guided by decisions taken by assemblies of clergy at local, provincial and national levels. - made royal supremacy unnecessary.
* supreme govt replaced by national assembly - make bishops redundant. she controlled and disciplined her church through her bishops.
* middle class would run the church as elders and there was a fear that in the end they would want to run the country through a national assembly - parliament. - religious and politcal threat.
THIS WAS POTENTIALLY REVOLUTIONARY. - hand power to the people.
Most reformers did not intend this - simply raise standards by educating clergy , doing away with abuses.
They were outside the Church of England.
They rejected a national church.
Each congregation should find truth by interpretting Scripture their own way. - independent congregations.
ANARCHY. - religious division and disorder.
Refused to alter settlement - people needed a sure faith.
Non conformity had to be stopped as a matter of discipline. - if clergy could challenge her over small issues, they might over lalrge ones, e.g. royal supremacy. - challenge to state and church.
How serious was the Puritan challenge to the Red Rubric in 1565 - 66?
Row over vestments and Parker's Advertisements 1566
1st challenge to settlement.
- challenges to red rubric , breaking act of uniformity.
- Presbyterians wanted to only wear the black Genevan gown.
- ministers wanted to break loaves instead of wafers.
Elizabeth wrote to Archbishop Parker instructing him to impose discipline on the clergy and to stop the nonconformity.
Archbishop Parker's Advertisements - imposed discipline.