Effects of Volcanoes

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Volcanic Eruptions have Primary And Secondary Impacts

Primary impacts- the immediate effects of a volcano spewing out lava, ash,rocks and gas ( e.g carbon dioxide and sulphuric dioxide) and pyroclastic flow ( extremely fast moving flows of ash , rock and gas that move down the side of a volcano)

Secondary impacts- these are the effects which happen later on

for example:

primary effects:

1) Buildings and roads destroyed by lava flows and pyroclastic flows- buildings may also collapse if enough ash falls on them

2) people and animals are injured or killed, mainly because of pyroclastic flows but also by lava flows and falling rocks

3) crops are damaged and water supplies are contaminated when ash falls on them.

4) People, animals and plants are suffocated by carbon dioxide. 

Secondary effects:

1) Mudflows ( also called lahars) - form when volcanic material mixes with water e.g from heavy rainfall or snow melt.Mudflows cause more…


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