EDUCATION- class differences in achievement (external factors) cultural deprivation


EDUCATION- class differences in achievement (external factors)



Hubbs-Tait et al (2002) - when parents use challenging language it improves cognitive performance.

Leon Feinstein (2008) - found educated parents are more likely to use challenging language as well as praise, which encourages the child .

Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann (1966) - claim the language used in lower-class homes is deficient. They describe lower-class famillies as communicating by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases.


Basil Bernstein (1975) - two types of speech codes. Restricted code is used by the working class with limited and simple vocabulary. Elaborated code is used by middle class with a wider vocabulary and is based on longer, gramatically more complex sentences.


- Critics argue Bernstein is a cultural deprivation theorist because he describes working-class speech as inadequate.

-HOWEVER Bernstein recognises that both the school and the home influences children's achievement. 


Douglas (1964) - found that working class parents placed less value on education, therefore less ambitious and encouraging for the child. Visited schools less often which meant their children had lower levels of motivation and achievement. 

Leon Feinstein (2008) - argues that parents own education is the most important factor affecting childrens achievement…


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