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Deciduous woodland

  • Theyre mostly located in the northern hemisphere with most of them being in Europe covering most of the UK and France, and eastern America.
  • The deciduous woodland has growing time of around 140-200 days.
  • The dominant vegetation is broad leaf trees such as oak, elm and walnut trees.

5 different layers:

  • Tree layer- most of the high trees such as oak, beech, maple
  • Sapling or small tree layer - short and young trees
  • Shrub layer- shrubs such as huckleberries
  • Herb layer-contains small plants
  • Ground layer-lichens, mosses


Soil types

Because in the cold seasons the trees drop their leaves there is a fertile soil which tends to travel quite deep and this is typically split up into four zones, these are:

Humus – this is the decomposed leaf litter which has turned into fertile compost as it cannot be decomposed any more.

Humus mixed with minerals/ very little minerals- this is where the humus has been mixed with minerals which help improver fertility of soil.

Bedrock- this is an impermeable layer where water


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