Ecological Extension (eco-holism) - Gaia Hypothesis


Does not focus on the human rights of the environment but instead respects ecosystems as intrinsically valuable

The most notable theory of such is the Gaia hypothesis - the worlds physical properties and biosphere form a complex interacting system. 

The idea of Gaia comes from the name of the Greek goddess of Earth who belived to be intrinsically part of the planet.

James Lovelock put forward the Gaia hypothesis in 1977 suggesting that Earth is a self-regulating biological organism that is not focused on the survival or preservation of humanity.

Looking at the Earth from space, Lovelock saw not so much a planet of diverse life but as a planet transformed by a self-regulating living system. In basic terms, THE EARTH IS ALIVE.

He examined fossil evidence to show that climatic change had,


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