DNA Transcription

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The DNA is in the nucleus of the cell, it is kept away from the other part of the cell where it might get affected by the metabolic reactions going on there.

Gene - is a length of DNA, it is a sequence of nucleotide bases that codes for on or more polypeptides
In the human genome there are about 25000 genes a few in the mitochondria, the rest on the chromosomes in the

1 molecule of DNA = 1 chromotid
DNA is made up of a sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleotide bases
Guanine - Cytosine
Adenine - Thymine

2 identical chromotids = 1 chromosome

There are 20 different amino acids used in humans and it is the sequence of these amino acids that determines the structure and function of the protein synthesised

DNA determines this sequence of amino acids and the protein made. Codes for proteins such as

- structural proteins, collagen and keratin
- haemoglobin
- immunoglobins
- cell surface receptors
- antigens
- actin and myosin in muscle cells
- tubulin proteins in cytoskeleton
- channel proteins
- electron carriers
- enzymes

The Genetic Code

The genetic code is a TRIPLET code, made up of three nucleotide bases.
Since there are…


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