1.1 - Division and Differentiation of Human Cells


Division and Differentiation of Human Cells

Higher Human Biology 1.1

Human body cells are diploid - 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Somatic cells are any body cell apart from the cells involved in reproduction. Somatic cells divide by mitosis to maintain the diploid chromosome number

Germline cells are the cells involved in reproduction (sperm and ova) and they divide by mitosis then meiosis. When they divide by meiosis, they produce haploid gametes - 23 single chromosomes.

Cellular differentiation is the process by which a cell expresses certain genes to produce protein characteristics for that cell and allows them to carry out specialised functions

Stem cells fall into two categories:

    • embryonic
    • tissue (adult)

Embryonic stem cells come from an embryo. Every gene is capable of switching on and the embryonic stem cell is…


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