Disruption of biological rhythms

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Usually exogenous zietgebers change gradually, giving time to adjust. However, rapid change disrupts coordination between internally regulated rhythms and external exogenous zietgebers, creating consequences for the ability to function properly;

Jet lag is caused by travelling across time zones so quickly that biological rhythms cannot match external cues causing sleepiness during daytime and restlessness at night. These symptoms last until resynchronisation occurs. The effects of jet lag are worst when travelling west to east, because its easier to adjust biological clocks if they are ahead of time (phase advance) the behind time (phase delay). Jet lag also occurs when the biological regulating temperature needs time to rest, causing desynchronised rhythms in the meantime.

  • Klein et al (1972) found that adjustment to jet lag occured more easily on



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