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Non-Infectious - You cannot catch them. (Diabetes, Sickle cell)

Infectious - You can catch them. (Flu, Nora virus, Malaria, HIV)

There are 4 types of pathogens (microorganisms that cause disease):

  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Protozoa

Our defence against infectious disease:

  • Skin
  • Mucus
  • Acid
  • Clotting

Pathogens cause harm by direct cell damage and/or releasing toxins.

Our immune system fights back against these.

White blood cells are monitoring your body for signs of a microorganism.

If they do come across one, there are three stages of attack:

  • Consuming them. The white blood cells engulf and digest pathogens
  • Producing Antitoxins. Counters the effects of toxins produced
  • Producing Antibodies. This involves creating proteins that will remember the antigen on the


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