Disease and Immune System - pathogen examples.


Different Types of Pathogen and Examples

Bacteria: Presence causes harm by damaging cells and releasing waste products/toxins. In plants, often live in vascular tissues.

  • Tuberculosis. Transmission via droplets. Lack of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, fatigue. Affects animals.
  • Bacterial Meningitis. Transmission via droplets. Fever, drowsiness, stiff neck, seizures, pale blotchy skin. Affects animals. Treated with intravenous antibiotics. Prevented with vaccines. 
  • Ring Rot. Transmission via direct contact (contaminated equipment or infected water). Wilt, discolouration, damages leaves tubes and fruits. Affects potatoes, tomatoes and aubergines. No cure.

Virus: Invade cells and take over genetic machinery and other organelles of cell. Reproduce by causing host cell to replicate the virus until it bursts, releasing viruses to infect heathy cells. 

  • HIV/AIDS. Transmission via sex, needles and HIV positive mothers. Fever, sore throat, body rash, tiredness, joint pain, muscle pain, swollen glands. Affects humans. Treated with antiretroviral drugs but no proper cure for HIV.
  • Influenza. Transmission via droplets. Fever, fatigue, headache, aches/pains, dry/chesty coughs, cold-like symptoms. Affects animals. No cure…


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