Tribal warfare replaced by sporting events-sporting teams represent tribes. Sport represents a ritualised form of aggression where people dont really get hurt but the rewards of resources and status are still present.
Exp 1- territoriality:
AO1:-Animals evolved to respond in a protective way to the possibility of territory being invaded. Territory important for survival and reproductive success-adaptive-provides space for nesting sites and the resources (food, water). In some species females choose males w best territories>males are aggressive over these. Animals use threat displays and attack w vigour when defending home territory (Huntingford 1987)
-seen in Haka
AO2:-home advantage-aggressive fans might be responsible-they defend home territory allowing teams to be more successful
Lewis et al 2005- Footie fans-home advantage was mainly down to crowd support-fans did feel responsible---but this is subjective to fans opinion+just because they believe this doesnt mean it is true. Also is crowd support always agg?
Pollard+P 2005-home advantage still exists w small crowds..isnt clear whether they affect the team +vely or -vely
Moore+Brylinsky 1993- outcome of games with and without spectators-home advantage is unrelated to crowd support
Defence of a home territory still explain success+home teams may be more aggressive even without fans
Neave+Wolfson 2003-Footie players at home>more likely to win, they have more testosterone than training week, team members had more responsibility, t in goalkeeper more. Evolved drive to protect home territory and therefore supports.
AO1: fear+distrust of strangers. Adaptive-approaching w caution protects from attack, exaggerate negative stereotypes about outsiders, as the over-perception of threat would be less costly than under-perception-Macdonald
Prioritising you+relatives rather than sharing resources promotes survival+risk of competition threatens resources, evolved to live in groups-allies make hunting^,more protection from danger,support when you cant support yourself eg pregnancy-define ingroup and out group to^social dominance-more rep. success.
AO2: upport for xenophobia in group displays comes from Foldesi who…