Discourse analysis: the analysis of talk in its own right
A distinctive way of thinking about textual material:
Text and language not so much as a representation of the world but also as a construction.
How to do DA
1. Formulating your research questions
2. Gathering material
Types of data used in DA:
- Newspaper materials
- Other pre-existing texts and secondary data sources (Hansard, official documents, psychology text-books)
- Soundtrack recordings of naturally occuring conversations
- Recordings of politicians' speeches
3. Reading and re-reading
Coding is selecting and organizing data
Coding is not analysis itself, but is done prior to the actual analysis
What kind of things does the language serve to define or construct? (What things are talked about)
What kind of people does the language serve to define or construct?
What are the functions of talking about these things/people in these ways in this context?
Rhetorical devices and their function
An explicit disavowal of the stance or opinion a speaker subsequently advocates.
A speaker may use this when they know that what they are about to say may attract criticism.
This way they deny the criticism before it can be made.
2. Stake inoculation
A speaker rebuts the potential claim that they have a stake even before they are challenged on it.
eg. someone selling new miracle cream in infomercial may say:
"At first, I was sceptical about the new cream. It seemed too good to be true. But after I tried it, I was convinced".
Speaker heads off suggestion…