Diet and Nutrition and Performance:

  • Created by: hotzmc
  • Created on: 28-12-17 17:40

Diet and Nutrition and Performance:

A Balanced Diet:

  • Carbs, proteins, fats, fibre, vitamins and mineral all need to be taken in in the correct proportions 
  • Not enough protein means inability to grow properly and repair yourself, e.g. after exercise
  • Not enough energy containing foods (carbs and fats) will make you very tired & lethargic causing a severe drop in performance in any sport or exercise related activity.
  • Too much energy containing foods cause you to become over weight, potentially leading to obesity

Recommended daily allowances are:

  • Carbs 50-65%
  • Fats 20-30%
  • Proteins 10-20%

The Main Functions of these Nutrients:

Carefully planned nutrition must provide an energy balance and nutrient balance:

Carbs: our main source of energy

Fats: A source of energy and important in relation to fat soluble vitamins

Proteins: Essential to growth and repair of muscle

Vitamins: Water and fat soluble vitamins play important roles in many chemical processes, e.g. Vitamin A - maintenance of skin

Minerals: Inorganic elements occurring in the body and which are critical to its normal functions, e.g. calcium - needed for bone and tooth formation

Water: Essential to normal body functions, 60% of the human body is water - used as a medium for carrying other nutrients, e.g. glucose in the blood and its use to control body temperature

Fibre: Essential to health of the digestive system

Energy Balance:

  • It’s important that an individual has a neutral energy balance -> the amount of calories consumed is equal to the number of calories burned
  • If more calories consumed than burned during the day, there is a positive energy balance, resulting in weight gain
  • If more calories are burned than consumed during the day, there is a negative energy balance, resulting in weight loss


  • Is the most important source of energy
  • Most of the carbs we consume are complex carbs, known as starch/polysaccharides 
  • Found in; fruit, vegetables, potato, rice, pasta, etc
  • The digestive systems turns all carbs into glucose, it is carried around the blood & is used by our tissues as energy
  • Some carbs are obtained in the form of simple carbs, also known as sugars/monosaccharides, e.g. glucose and fructose
  • There are also disaccharides, e.g. sucrose and lactose
  • It takes roughly 15% less oxygen to break down a glucose molecule than it does a fat molecule, hence glucose if preferred by sportsmen/women
  • Sugars are broken down at a faster rate than starch, providing instant energy, however if it is not used it is stored as fat
  • The gylcaemic index  shows the rate at which certain foods release energy into the blood stream

The Glycaemic Index:

The rate at which carbs release energy into the blood stream

  • Carbs vary with regard to how quickly they release energy into the blood stream
  • High GI foods release energy and increase glucose into the blood quickly
  • Low GI foods release energy and increase glucose into the blood at a slower rate
  • Carbs have been ranked on a scale of 1 - 100
  • Glucose has a ranking of 100 and


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