Diagnosis and classifications of schizophrenia

  • Diagnosis and classification of Schizophrenia:
  • Classification of schizophrenia 
  • AO1:
  • No single defining characteristic:
  • Schizophrenia is a collection of seemingly unrelated symptoms. There are many misconceptions and exaggerations surrounding the nature of schizophrenia. 
  • classifications include DSM-5 and ICD-10, in DSM-5, one positive symptom must be present (delusions, hallucinations or speech disorganisation. In ICD-10, 2 or more negative sympotoms are sufficient for diagnosis (avoliation and speech poverty)
  • Symptoms:
  • Postive symptoms are additional experiences beyond those of the ordinary existence.
  • hallucinations - Sensory experiences that have no basis in reality or distorted perceptions of real things. Experienced in relation to any sense. For example, hearing coices, seeing pople who aren't there etc.
  • Delusions - Beliefs that have no basis in reality - make a person woth schizpohrenia behave in ways that make sense to them but not to others. For example, belifes about bein a very important person, or the victim of a conspiracy. 
  • Negative symptoms:
  • Avoliation - Severe loss of motivation to carry out everyday tasks (work, hobbies, personal care etc). Results in lowered activity levels and unwillingness to carry out goal-girected behaviours. 
  • Speech poverty - A reduction in the amount and quality of speech. May include a delay in verbal responses during conversation. DSM emphsises speech disorganisation and incoherence. 
  • Issues in diagnosis:
  • Reliability - the extent to which the diagnosis of schizophrenia is consistent. 
  • Validity - The extent to whoch the diagnosis and


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