Developments in Central Administration, Chp.1 Section 2



Between first and 2nd duma Stolypin came to power, throughout previous ways of dealing with dissenters too soft trial system for civilian protesters made faster by putting them through field court marshalls quick trials and executions gain the nickname Stolypin's neckties

There was only one significant but tempory addition made in 1861. It was the creation of a committee of ministers who had a purely administrative role for Russian affairs (i.e. war, finance and religion). There were issues in communication between ministries and it was abolished in 1906

Pressure for change increased after the disastrous Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, shown by mass social unrest (Bloody Sunday, Potemkin and assassinations of key political figures

1905 October Manifesto theoretically created a very different kind of government.

  • Tsar: The tsar was an autocrat.
  • The council of ministers:  like a parliamentary cabinet but chaired by a PM selected by the tsar. It provided material for the houses to debate, regardless, the tsar gt the final say on the implementation of any new law. When two houses in recess ministers report directly to the tsar, allowing him to bypass both State council and Duma.
  • (a morphed version of the imperial council of state) The State Council Members of the council either nominated by the tsar or elected representatives of church guild uni zemstva or nobility. Checked activities of the Duma which had to agree with the nature of reform before they could be considered by the tsar
  • The Duma: Elected from a variety of social groups. it could block proposed legislation but not pass laws. Election process deliberately complex, you voted for 'others' who then chose political representatives. It favoured those with property. Ekectiosb to the duma supposed to occur every 5 years, but the tsar had the authority of disband duma which he did in 1906 1907 and 1917
  • The Senate acted as a final court of appeal, confirmed nobility and settled boundary disputes 

Third duma although unrepresentative put through army and navy strengthening reforms and judicial reform including Justices of the Peace and Land Captains  and state-run insurance schemes for workers

1912-1917 Duma put pressure on the tsar to abdicate, supported the rights of protesters not to be killed, 

August 1915 Nicolas II suspends duma after socialist progressive bloc walks out and demand a National Government for the war effort. Nicolas takes personal control of the armed forces. Real wages fell, as did food and fuel supplies. 

By the end of 1917 Boloshoviks in charge of the governance of Russia. Genuine social reform would have revolved around the freedoms and liberties gained as a result of the revolt of February 1917

The Decree on Land sanctioned the requisition of private land by peasants, but stated redistribution could only be carried out by village soviets. Similar to what rival SR's has proposed for years and went some way to winning them over. 

3rd March 1918 The treaty of Brest Listsvick was signed ceding a huge proportion of territory, about 1/3rd of


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