Developmental LD

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Terminology

  • psycholinguists distinguish between five kinds of linguistic knowledge 
  • > phonology
  • > morphology
  • > semantics
  • > syntax
  • > pragmatics

So:

  • children need to:
  • > learn to discriminate and produce language sounds
  • > combine these appropriately
  • > understand that words convey meaning
  • > use rules for combining words into meaningful phrases
  • > figure out how to communicate effectively

Stages of language development 

  • pre linguisttic stage: 0-12 months
  • one word stage: 12-18 months
  • telegraphic speech: 18-24 months
  • nursery/preschool developments: 24 months-5 years
  • school age developments: 5 years+

Prelinguistic period

  • 3 days old: prefer mothers' voice
  • first month: prefer native language
  • in 2 months: recognise some phonemes if spoken by different people
  • early: discriminate non-native phonemes, this disappears with exposure to one language
  • infants respond to/repeat intonational cues

Prelinguistic vocalisations

  • cooing at 2 months
  • babbling at 4-6 months
  • canonical babbling at 6-10 months
  • modulated babbling at 10-12 months
  • up to 6 months: deaf and hearing infants sound alike

End of year one

  • turn taking when vocalising: approx. 8 months
  • 8-10 months: manual and facial gestures
  • > imperative (demands) and declarative (showing)
  • > these persist after starting to talk
  • comprehension (receptive language) develops before speech (productive language)
  • > this also persists, 12-17 months can understand many words that they can't yet produce

One word stage

  • babies use single words (holophrases), where adults use sentences

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