Kissinger: A legitimate order does not make conflicts impossible, but it limits their scope.'
- Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) ---------- Test Ban Treaty (August 1963) Hot Line (June 1963, used in 1971 India-Pakistani War)
- June 1963, Kennedy speaks in American University talking of need for 'world peace' 'mutual tolerance' halting the harms race.'
- June 1967, summit between Johnson and Kosygin at Glassboro (New Jersey) discuss arms race (however, in undermining factor it is important to note that nothing was actually achieved.)
- MAD 1969. Two decades of overwhelming US nuclear superiority ended as Soviets achieved nuclear parity with US. Seen by Mahoney as 'most important' factor in development of detente. Soviets actually had more ICBMs (1140 to 1054) by November 1969. Why is MAD significant? Gaddis: 'as the means of fighting great wars became expotentially more devestating, the liklihood of such wars diminished.' Hence, both saw tacit co-operation as key, perhaps heightened diplomacy in place of military emphasis
By 1970s, peace groups were estimating that there were enough nuclear weapons stockpiled in the world to destroy humanity 690 times over.
- MAD precipitated Non- Proliferation Treaty of 1968 - US, USSR, UK. All five acknowledged Nuclear Powers must not transfer nuclear weapons to non-nuclear-weapon states. (Cuba, Turkey mid-April 1963)
- SALT negocitations begin in November 1969
Arms control for the US ensured safety against a more formidably armed rival (November 1969, definite trend towards parity, 1140 ICBMs to Americans 1054.)b
Arms controls agreements valued for a few reasons - genuine sobering impact of Cuban missile crisis. BUT for Soviets, arms control would confirm the Soviet Union's status as a co-equal power --- before any technological breakthroughts allowed the US to capture its previous preponderence. Gromyko, 1971, 24th Communist Party Congress, 'the political significance of a stable strategic balance is indisputable.' 1969, 28 000, 11 000
(Tensions emerge after crushing of Prague Spring. Johnson cancells visit to Moscow 1968.)
- 1960s, factors including domestic political events and ideological differences caused Sino-Soviet split.
- 1969 (2nd March) at Damanski, border clashes between Chinese and Soviet troops (which saw 800 Chinese soldiers die) threatened all-out nuclear war.
- Nixon first president to exploit split. Triangular diplomacy - greater relations with China would in turn improve relations with Soviets (whilst playing two off against eachother) creating multipolar world with friendlier diplomacy.
- Nixon visits China February 1972. Shanghai Communique, 28 Feb. More symbollic than actual. But some important agreements on trade, as well as a pact between two superpowers that they would work together to resist any country that sought to dominate South-East Asia. (implicit reference to USSR.)
- Soviets fear anti-soviet alliance. Fear that US could focus all defense on Russia, frightening thought given added dimension of Chinese nuclear power achieved in 1964 (provocatively named 59/6 after year and month Soviet…