Teleological arguments are...
a posteriori- based our experience of universe
inductive- move from particular observations to general conclusions about the universe
concluding that God exists through the idea that the world has a purpose and is designed
there are two different types of teleological arguments:
1) Arguments from analogy- similarities between features of universe and manufactured objects conclude there is a designer
2) argument best explanation- existence intelligent designer best way explain the life enabling features of universe
AQUINAS - ANALOGY OF ARCHER
1) Things that lack intelligence, such as living organisms, have an end ( purpose)
2) things that lack intelligence cannot move towards their end unless they are directed by someone with knowledge and intelligence
3) for example, an arrow cannot direct itself towards its target unless directed by an archer
4) therefore, by analogy there must be some intelligent being which directs all unintelligent natural beings towards theirs end
- there must be an intelligence behind the function on organisms.
- Someone must have organised the world in this way so ducks- effective paddling mechanisms
- unintelligent objects (arrow) can only be aimed towards its goal (target) with hand of an intelligent being ( archer)
- therefore, a guiding intellignece must lie behind the universe
- Conclusion- universe , unintelligent yet goal-directed like the arrow must have guiding intelligence behind it , such as archer - God.
CRITICISMS TO AQUINAS
1) Aquinas needs to bolster his second premise 'all things that lack intelligence can only move towards their end if directed someone knowledge and inteligence' with more evidence and justification.
Needs to provide good reasons to believ a) living organisms have function b) function result intelligent being
2)Flew- the suggestion that all natural organisms are designed goes all available evidence. We see embryos grow and develop without interference from intelligence.
Therefore, idea intelligent being directly shapes our world isn't supported by our observations of it
-- However, the interference of science is undermined by the theists who say this provides evidence that the world is glorious work of divine craftsmanship. If universe is like a machine then perhaps the machine has a designer.
WILLIAM PALEY'S ARGUMENT FROM ANALOGY
1) watch= certain complex features ( consists parts, function together, perform specific purpose)
2) anything that exhibits these features must be designed
3) therefore, the watch was designed by a designer
4) The universe is like the watch in that it possesses the same features except on a far more wondrous scale
5)therefore, the universe, like the watch, has been designed by a far more wondrous universe maker - GOD .
CRITICISMS TO PALEY'S ARGUMENT
-Some parts of the watch may appear to have no purpose
- when Paley came across the stone,he simply dismissed it - it didn't have a purpose nor did it show that the universe was designed
- if some parts of the universe or watch has no purpose then this weakens the argument that the universe was designed- A DESIGNER WOULD NOT INCLUDE POINTLESS PARTS