Focus on the substance or content of religious beliefs. e.g Max Weber - religion is a belief in a superior or supernatural power that is above nature and can't be explained scientifically.
X This leaves no room for beliefs that have a similar function to religion but dont involved a God.
X Accused of a Western bias because they exclude religions which don't have a Western idea of a God, such as Buddhism.
Defines it in terms of social or psychological functions that a religion may play for a person. Durkheim defines religion in terms of the contribution it makes to social intergration, rather than a specific belief in God.