Focuses on the content of religious belief, such as a belief in God or the supernatural. Weber (1905) defines religion as a belief in a superior or supernatural power that is above nature and cannot be explained scientifically.
Substantive definitions are exclusive beliefs they draw a clear line between religious and non-religious beliefs. In order to be a religion, there must be a belief in God or the supernatural.
Defined in terms of social or psychological functions it performs for the individuals or society. Durkheim (1915) defines religion in terms of the contribution it makes to social integration rather…