NOT INSTITUTIONAL CARE e.g orphanage
Effects on Aggressive Behaviour
Studies found that children who attend daycare, especially ones who are there for over 30 hours per week are more aggressive
NICHD study: aged 5 children who had been in day care for any kind were rated as more assertive, disobedient, and more aggressive. Children in full-time day care 3x more likely to show behaviour problems when they went to school compared t other that have been cared for at home by their mother
EPPE study: high levels of day care, particularly nursery care n first 2 years may elevate risk of developing antisocial behaviour.
NICHD results can also be used to show that day care is not associated with aggressiveness. Of the children in day care 10-30 hours a week 83% did not show higher levels of aggression (Friedman 2006) Underlies importance of looking through results carefully
NICHD data showed that mother’s sensitivity to child was better indicator of reported behaviours than was time in child care = less sensitivity more behaviour problems.
Effect on Social Development
Negative Effects – Violata and Russell (1994) meta-analysis 88 studies and concluded that day care for more than 20 hours a week had unmistakably –ve effect on socio-emotional development, behaviour and attachment of young children
Positive Effects – Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) 150 children, found that those who were in day care consistently more advanced in their social developmet than children with their mothers. Advances = social development, independence, dinnertime obedience, compliance result and social interaction with peers.
Effects on Peer Relations
Day care exposes children to their peers thus permits them time to develop social strategies, e.g ability to negotiate over toys and the art of making friends.
Field (1991) correlational study and found that amount of time spent in full-time day care +ve correlated to no of friends they had once they started school.
Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) children that went to day care were better able to deal with peer relationships e.g better at settling a dispute
EPPE: increased independence and sociability in children attending day care. (Sylva et al 2003)
Belsky and Rovine (1988) children who received 20 hours or more of day care were more likely to be insecurely attached compared to children at home. Insecure attachment linked with greater difficulty with social relationships.
Quality of Care
Low quality of care is associated with poor social development (NICHD)
Shy children may find day care more difficult (Pennebaker et al 1981)