The Data Protection Act (DPA) is a law designed to protect personal data [data: information without context, eg a list of students with numbers beside their names is data, when it's made clear that those numbers represent their placing in a 100 metre race, the data becomes information ] stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.
For the GCSE ICT exam, you need to know about the 1998 Act.
The need for the Data Protection Act
During the second half of the 20th century, businesses, organisations and the government began using computers to store information about their customers, clients and staff in databases. For example:
- contact information
- employment history
- medical conditions
- credit history
Databases are easily accessed, searched and edited. It’s also far easier to cross reference information stored in two or more databases than if the records were paper-based. The computers on which databases resided were often networked. This allowed for organisation-wide access to databases and offered an easy way to share information with other organisations.
Misuse and unauthorised access to information
With more and more organisations using computers to store and process personal information there was a danger the information could be misused or get into the wrong hands. A number of concerns arose:
- Who could access this information?
- How accurate was the information?
- Could it be easily copied?
- Was it possible to store information about a person without the individual’s knowledge or permission?
- Was a record kept of any changes made to information?
The purpose of the Data Protection Act
The 1998 Data Protection Act was passed by Parliament to control the way information is handled and to give legal rights to people who have information stored about them.
Other European Union countries have passed similar laws as often information is held in more than one country.
The BBC Webwiseguide on how the Data Protection Act works.
How the Data Protection Act works
The Data Protection Act [Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA):legislation passed by parliament that governs the protection of personal data in the UK ] was developed to give protection and lay down rules about how data [data: information without context, eg a list of students with numbers beside their names is data, when it's made clear that those numbers represent their placing in a 100 metre race, the data becomes information ] about people can be used.
The 1998 Act covers informationinformation: data with context or meaning or data stored on a computer or an organised paper filing system about living people.
The basic way it works is by:
- setting up rules that people have to follow
- having an Information Commissioner to enforce the rules
It does not stop companies storing information about people. It just makes them follow rules.
The roles of those involved
- The Information Commissioner is the person (and his/her office) who…