Crime as a social construct

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'to be created by society'

Cesare Beccaria- criticisms of arbituary powers of monarchs and aristocracy- severity of the crime should be governed by the nature of the crime, not the criminal.

Torture-- a useless method of investigation. Prison-- should be extended & improved.

Drs, psychiatrists & social workers were allowed into the CJS to identify the impact of bio, psycho and social diff. between offenders = sentences became more personalised.

Michel Foucault- "discipline & punish"- the birth of prisons.

Eco. changes & popular dissent in 18th C made control over individ. neccessary.

Shift of focus of punishment from prisoners body


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