'to be created by society'
Cesare Beccaria- criticisms of arbituary powers of monarchs and aristocracy- severity of the crime should be governed by the nature of the crime, not the criminal.
Torture-- a useless method of investigation. Prison-- should be extended & improved.
Drs, psychiatrists & social workers were allowed into the CJS to identify the impact of bio, psycho and social diff. between offenders = sentences became more personalised.
Michel Foucault- "discipline & punish"- the birth of prisons.
Eco. changes & popular dissent in 18th C made control over individ. neccessary.
Shift of focus of punishment from prisoners body…