CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

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HOW DID PRISONS CHANGE?

REHABILITATION
training people to get back into society

KEY INDIVIDUALS
Elizabeth Fry; females, useful work, religion & education, Newgate Prison
John Howard (after death); book which highlighted bad conditions: better food & space, seperation by type and gender.1823 Goal Act (impliments of some of his actions)
Robert Peel

HOUSES OF CORRECTION ---> PRISONS

SOME STILL HAD OLD CONDITIONS
1830-40s silent system, seperate system, solitary confinement (conscientious objectors)

WHY DID PRISONS CHANGE?

ACTIONS BY INDIVIDUALS
Robert Peel, Elizabeth Fry, John Howard

WAY PEOPLE SAW PUNISHMENT
enlightenment; humans can change so punishments change

FAILURES OF ALTERNATIVE METHOD
Slack of effectiveness e.g. Bloody Code, Transportation

HOW BLOODY WAS THE BLOODY CODE?

WAS
death penalty 1688, 50 crimes, 1815, 225 crimes 
drunk girl, teen, London, killed due to disrespect (innocent for her crime)

NOT
40% in 1700
10% only in 1800 
30% who were accused were pardoned 1700s,
Juries though punishment to harsh
1833 1100 people sentenced to hanging for house breaking, only one was hung
worried about rising in protests and opposition

WHY WAS THERE A BLOODY CODE 

TO GET RID OF CRIMINALS
deterrence, stop other people, protect community

RICH PEOPLE FEARED CRIME,

POPULATION INC 
industrial revolution

OTHER PUNISHMENTS INEFFECTIVE 
pillary, prisions

RICH PEOPLE PROTECTING THEIR LAND AND WEALTH
e.g. poaching Waltham Black Act, only people who could afford to make a stand in court

WHY DID THE BLOODY CODE END? 
PRISONS IMPROVED
key individuals

ENLIGHTENMENT/SOCIAL CHANGES
changes in ideas, people can change

SENTENCES NOT CARRIED OUT
10% 1800S

TOO HARSH (JUDGES)

FACTORIES CLOSED FOR THE DAY TO WATCH 

WHY WAS TRANSPORTATION USED?

NEW LIFE, NEW LAND
people were often able to start new lifes, given jobs, land

NOT MANY ALTERNATIVES 

GETS RID OF CRIMINALS

WHY DID TRANSPORTATION END?

PRISONS IMPROVED

AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA INDEPENDANCE

TOO HARSH/SOCIAL CHANGES IN ATTITUDES

WHO WERE THE TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS?

1833 FARM WORKERS
signed an oath to fight low wages, given 7 years transportation

SEEN AS FOUNDERS OF TRADE UNION MOVEMENT

TURNED PEOPLE AGAINST TRANSPORTATION

ROBERT PEEL

1829 THE HOME SECRETARY, SIR ROBERT PEEL
SPR persuaded parliament to pass the Metropolitan…

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