- Created by: Grace
- Created on: 02-06-13 18:12
HOW DID PRISONS CHANGE?
training people to get back into society
Elizabeth Fry; females, useful work, religion & education, Newgate Prison
John Howard (after death); book which highlighted bad conditions: better food & space, seperation by type and gender.1823 Goal Act (impliments of some of his actions)
HOUSES OF CORRECTION ---> PRISONS
SOME STILL HAD OLD CONDITIONS
1830-40s silent system, seperate system, solitary confinement (conscientious objectors)
WHY DID PRISONS CHANGE?
ACTIONS BY INDIVIDUALS
Robert Peel, Elizabeth Fry, John Howard
WAY PEOPLE SAW PUNISHMENT
enlightenment; humans can change so punishments change
FAILURES OF ALTERNATIVE METHOD
Slack of effectiveness e.g. Bloody Code, Transportation
HOW BLOODY WAS THE BLOODY CODE?
death penalty 1688, 50 crimes, 1815, 225 crimes
drunk girl, teen, London, killed due to disrespect (innocent for her crime)
40% in 1700
10% only in 1800
30% who were accused were pardoned 1700s,
Juries though punishment to harsh
1833 1100 people sentenced to hanging for house breaking, only one was hung
worried about rising in protests and opposition
WHY WAS THERE A BLOODY CODE
TO GET RID OF CRIMINALS
deterrence, stop other people, protect community
RICH PEOPLE FEARED CRIME,
OTHER PUNISHMENTS INEFFECTIVE
RICH PEOPLE PROTECTING THEIR LAND AND WEALTH
e.g. poaching Waltham Black Act, only people who could afford to make a stand in court
WHY DID THE BLOODY CODE END?
changes in ideas, people can change
SENTENCES NOT CARRIED OUT
TOO HARSH (JUDGES)
FACTORIES CLOSED FOR THE DAY TO WATCH
WHY WAS TRANSPORTATION USED?
NEW LIFE, NEW LAND
people were often able to start new lifes, given jobs, land
NOT MANY ALTERNATIVES
GETS RID OF CRIMINALS
WHY DID TRANSPORTATION END?
AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA INDEPENDANCE
TOO HARSH/SOCIAL CHANGES IN ATTITUDES
WHO WERE THE TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS?
1833 FARM WORKERS
signed an oath to fight low wages, given 7 years transportation
SEEN AS FOUNDERS OF TRADE UNION MOVEMENT
TURNED PEOPLE AGAINST TRANSPORTATION
1829 THE HOME SECRETARY, SIR ROBERT PEEL
SPR persuaded parliament to pass the Metropolitan…