Short Answers- Crime and Deviance
How do families ensure their members conform (2 mks)
Families get their members to conform by offering rewards for behaving well like extra pocket money; or by imposing punishments like the naughty step.
How do schools ensure their members conform (2 mks)
Schools get their members to conform by offering rewards for behaving well like special trips; or by imposing punishments like detentions.
How does the Mass Media get people to conform (2 mks)
The Mass Media gets people to conform by showing advertising that suggests certain clothes or behaviors are fashionable and will make people popular like celebrities; they also include stories that suggest certain behaviors are not in keeping with the rest of society and will be looked down upon so people do not do them, for example work and take benefits.
What do Sociologists mean by Deviance? (4 marks)
Deviance is behavior that breaks social norms. Sometimes this includes criminal behavior; however, deviance and crime don't always mean the same thing. Crime is different in that it means the breaking of the law. Deviance that isn't criminal is talking loudly in a library, whilst deviance that is criminal is murdering someone. Some crime isn't even deviant for example speeding. There is no set definition of what deviance is as it depends on who is witnessing the behavior and how they see it, a religious person wouldn't see going to a place of worship as deviant, but a non-religious person might.
What do Sociologists mean by Crime? (4 marks)
Crime is the breaking of the law. However, this behavior isn't always deviant, although it can be. Deviance is different to crime as it is behavior that breaks social norms. Criminal behavior that is also deviant includes stealing, but some crimes are not deviant for example speeding. Some deviance doesn't break the law for example a male office worker wearing a dress to work. Crime is socially constructed, in that the law differs from society to society, and who influences the writing of the law. For example, drinking alcohol is illegal in Islamic countries, but not in the UK. If the law is influenced by the wealthy it may be lenient towards the wealthy, and harsh towards poorer people.
What do Sociologists mean by Informal Social Control? (4 marks)
Informal Social Control is the way that people are made to conform to the wishes of an aspect or institution of society, without that institution having been specially set up with special buildings and specially trained staff to make people to conform. For example, the Family gets its members to conform by offering rewards like presents, or punishments like smacking as a by-product of many of its other functions. This is different to Formal social control where the institution is specially set up and its main function is to get people to conform, for example the police are specially trained to keep order and arrest people if they are not prepared to do as the…