Conflict & Tension: Peacemaking

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  • Created by: Burney7
  • Created on: 03-06-21 17:26

Aims of the Big Three

In January 1919, 32 winning countries met in the Palace of Versailles for the Paris Peace Conference. Discussions were led by Britain, France and the USA. They were known as ‘The Big Three’.

Georges Clemenceau Prime Minister of France

Most of the fighting took place in France in WW1 sos France suffered the most from the war. Germans had destroyed railways, factories, farmland etc. Clemenceau was under pressure from the French people to get revenge.

 

·       Wanted to cripple Germany so couldn’t attack again

·       Armed forces dramatically reduced

·       Germany’s border pushed back to the Rhine

·       Take away German’s defences

·       Money to help rebuild France 

David Lloyd George Prime Minister of Britain

Elected because he promised to are Germany pay. Many young British men had died in the war, but Lloyd George was more cautious that Clemenceau so Germany wasn’t going to start another war.

 

·       Keep Germany strong so it could trade with Britain

·       Gain German colonies for The British Empire

·       Reduce German navy size to keep British Navy powerful

 

Woodrow Wilson President of the USA

No fighting had taken place on American soil. America had made money selling weapons to allies. Wilson was also concerned that Germany would seek revenge if they were too harsh.

 

·       Was an idealist: wanted future were everyone is treated fairly

·       Wanted to create a world parliament (The League of Nations) so countries can work together 

·       Believed in self-determination and wanted countries to rule themselves 

·       Freedom of the Seas: everyone could sail their trading ships anywhere

·       The Fourteen Points

 

Compromise of The Big Three

Armistice

Germany signed an Armistice that made Germany agree to pay reparations, give the Alsace-Lorraine region back to France and move its army out of the Rhineland. Clemenceau argued that these were already agreed and so should be in the final treaty.

Prior Agreements

The Big Three had made promises to other countries in return for their support. These countries saw some things as rightfully theirs. For example, Italy had been promised land form the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Conflicts of Interests

·       Freedom of the Seas (Wilson) VS Naval Supremacy (Lloyd George)

·       Germany’s armament (Clemenceau) VS strong Germany to act as a buffer to Communism (Lloyd George)

·       Revenge (Clemenceau) VS Idealism (Wilson)

·       Self-determination (Wilson) VS The British Empire (Lloyd George)

 

A Changing Europe

Politics and economies had changed drastically from before the war. The Austria-Hungary Empire was breaking down and the Communists had taken over Russia. Europe was extremely unstable and there was a lot of poverty due to war. People were afraid of more trouble.

 

Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

On 28th June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles is signed.

 

Land

·       Alsace-Lorraine returned to France

·       Land given to

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