Conceptual Schemes

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A Posteriori Accounts

  • Interests and values shape and direct our experience


  • Language and concept-formation
  • Hopi Indians

Wittgenstein: seeing-as

Other Cultural examples:

  • Gender
  • Nudity
  • Food
  • Ethics
  • Art and Convention

A Priori Accounts

Kant - Innate Synthetic a priori ideas

Chomsky - Innate generative grammar

A moral sense - Innate valence re behaviour

Physics - Innate common sense physics

Biology - Innate Perceptual apparatus


Kant rejects Hume's simple and passive view of perception, along with its scepticism.

For Kant, there is no such thing as raw, uninterpreted experience.

Experience is always 'cooked'. To even qualify as experience, empirical data must first be


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