Concept of Liability - Introduction to Criminal Law

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Actus Reus (guilty action):

    • An Act
    • Omission (failure to act)
    • State of affairs

In order for there to be an Actus Reus, there must be Mens Rea (guilty mind).


In Hill v Baxter 1958, the man was attacked by a swarm of bees, causing him to lose control of the vehicle, therefore not possessing the necessary Mens Rea, and not comitting the Actus Rea. 

E.g. If the defendant pushes a person into the victim, the pushed person would not be held


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